The spine is made of bones (vertebrae) separated by soft cushions (intervertebral discs). Lumbar (lower back) spine disease is usually caused by herniated intervertebral discs, abnormal growth of bony processes on the vertebral bodies (osteophytes), which compress spinal nerves, trauma, and narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal column around the spinal cord. Symptoms of lumbar spine problems include pain that radiates from the back to the buttocks or back of thigh, pain that interferes with daily activities, weakness of legs or feet, numbness of legs, feet, or toes or loss of bowel of bladder control.
Lumbar Spine surgery
During lumbar spine surgery, the bone that curves around and covers the spinal cord (lamina) is removed (laminectomy) and the tissue that is causing pressure on the nerve or spinal cord is removed. The hole through which the nerve passes can be enlarged to prevent further nerve pressure. A piece of bone (bone graft), inter body cages, or pedicle screws may be used to strengthen the area of surgery.